"Nature performs not hing vainly, and makes nothing unnecessary" Aristotle Interest in the passage of charged particles through crystals first appeared at the beginning of this century following experiments on x-ray diffraction in crystallattices, which provided the proof of an ordered distribution of atoms in a crystal. Stark  put forward the hypothesis that certain directions in a crystal should be relatively transparent to charged particles. These first ideas on the channeling of charged particles in crystals were forgotten but became topical again in the early 1960s when the channeling effect was rediscovered by computer simulation  and in experiments  that revealed anomalously long ion ranges in crystals. The orientational efÂ fects during the passage of charged particles through crystals have been found for a whole range of processes characterized by small impact parameters for collisions between particles and atoms: nuclear reactions, large-angle scatterÂ ing, energy losses. Lindhard explained the channeling of charged particles in crystals . The results of the numerous investigations into the channeling of low-energy (amounting to several MeV) charged particles in crystals have been summarized in several monographs and reviews [5~8l.
Rising global energy demand and the adverse environmental impact of energy use have led to renewed interest in nuclear power. Novel materials and approaches are needed to advance the utilization of nuclear energy in a manner consistent with the goals of proliferation resistance, energy security and waste reduction. This book brings together experimenters, theoreticians and modelers to discuss the innovations needed to develop the next generation of nuclear materials, and to understand the performance of existing materials under extreme operating conditions. Presentations explore the fabrication (melting, rolling sol gel, sintering, hot-pressing), characterization (microscopy, diffraction, thermal and electrical property measurements), modeling (ranging from nano- to mesoscale, and spanning timeframes ranging from fractions of femtoseconds to hundreds or millions of years), and performance predictions of various nuclear fuel cycle materials.
Planning, operating, and policy making in the electric utility and natural gas sectors involves important trade-offs among economic, social, and environmental criteria. These trade-offs figure prominently in ongoing debates about how to meet growing energy demands and how to restructure the world's power industry. Energy Decisions and the Environment: A Guide to the Use of Multicriteria Methods reviews practical tools for multicriteria (also called multiobjective) decision analysis that can be used to quantify trade-offs and contribute to more consistent, informed, and transparent decision making. These methods are designed to generate and effectively communicate information about trade-offs; to help people form, articulate, and apply value judgments in decision making; and to promote effective negotiation among stakeholders with competing interests. Energy Decisions and the Environment: A Guide to the Use of Multicriteria Methods includes explanations of a wide range of methods, tutorial applications that readers can duplicate, a detailed review of energy-environment applications, and three in-depth case studies.
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